Bladder stones are foreign structures in the bladder that make it difficult to urinate.
In most cases, bladder stones are formed in elderly age. It is the secondary problem which occurs due to poor outflow of urine in the benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, urethral stricture, etc.
Gradually increasing in size, the stones complicate urination and support the infectious-inflammatory process in the urinary tract. Because of microbial infection, bladder stones can be complicated by pyelonephritis - inflammation of the kidneys. If the stone is located in the neck of the bladder, acute urinary retention may occur. Due to the injury of the dilated venous vessels of the bladder neck, severe bleeding can occur - profuse total hematuria.
Bladder stones symptoms
The patient feels too frequent and sharp urge to urinate during exercise or shaking, feels the need to go to the toilet during the night. Urination is accompanied by painful sensations; a drop of blood is possible in the last portion of urine. A characteristic symptom of stones in the bladder is the so-called symptom of “laying a stream of urine”: the jet is suddenly interrupted and restored only after the changing of the body position.
Bladder stones detection
An ultrasound (US) is usually sufficient to visualize the bladder and determine the calculus in it.
Bladder stones treatment
Proper treatment is not only to remove stones from the bladder, but also to eliminate the cause that led to it formation. Usually, it is the benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, or urethral stricture. Modern endoscopic technique allows penetrating the bladder through the urethra, removing adenoma with a laser (also a tumor or stricture) and at the same time fragmenting stones. The stones are broken to small pieces, which are washed away by a current of liquid. The duration of the operation depends on the number of removed stones, but, as a rule, it takes no more than an hour. The patients stay in the hospital for three to five days.