Hydronephrosis is a gradual atrophy of the kidney tissues as a result of disturbed outflow of urine and constriction of the pelvic-ureteric junction (where the kidney pelvis is narrowing and turning into ureter).
There are several stages of the disease: expansion of the pelvis without clinical manifestations, early and late hydronephrosis. The last stage is the most dangerous because of the probability of irreversible changes of the kidney is high. In this case, surgery is needed to remove the affected organ.
Infected hydronephrosis may occur when patients are weak or suffering from infectious and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs or intestines. The consequence is pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidney), which requires urgent surgical treatment.
Symptoms of hydronephrosis
Hydronephrosis can occur without symptoms. Often the disease is detected only in the terminal stage, when the functional ability of the kidney has already lost. Pain in the lumbar region, blood in the urine (hematuria) and high blood pressure are the terrible symptoms of hydronephrosis, with the appearance of which it is necessary to consult an urologist urgently.
Diagnostics of hydronephrosis
Hydronephrosis is detected with ultrasound, MRI or CT. In the projection of the pelvis system an increased accumulation of fluid is detected.
To determine the stage of the accumulative and excretory functions impairment of the kidney, dynamic and static nephroscintigraphy are performed, the results of which determine the treatment.
In addition to general clinical examination, for assessing the patient level of readiness for operation, biochemical blood tests, Reberg test and Zimnitsky urine analysis are performed.
Treatment of hydronephrosis
The basis treatment of hydronephrosis is the elimination of an obstruction of the zone of the ureter narrowing and the reconstruction of the pelvic-ureteric junction to restore the normal urine flow.
In the Department of Urology at Sechenov University, 3D-modeling of the urinary tract and surrounding vessels is performed using imagine of CT scan, it is allows to prepare for the operation, taking into account the course of the disease and the physiological feature of the patient.
The laparoscopic surgery is considered the «gold standard» for treatment of hydronephrosis. Surgical intervention is carried out under the control of HD-optics, through the several abdomen punctures, which does not require suturing. Hospital stay takes 4-7 days.
The Department of Urology at Sechenov University has advanced technologies that save the almost dead kidney. The method is based on the stimulation of bone marrow cells with special preparations in combination with an organ-preserving operation.